Essential fatty acids described below are all found in one tiny capsule of OMAPREM. No other food, plant, or supplement contains all of these essential fatty acids in a single all-natural source. Essential fatty acids have been scientifically proven to be necessary for overall health and wellbeing.
- Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is one of several omega-3 fatty acids used by the body. It is found in cold water fatty fish and in fish oil supplements, along with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are part of a healthy diet that helps lower risk of heart disease. Increased intake of EPA has beneficial effects on coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Most people in the Western world do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids in their diet. 2 However, fish do not naturally produce EPA, but obtain it from the algae they consume. It is available to humans from some non-animal sources (e.g., commercially, from microalgae). EPA is not usually found in higher plants, but it has been reported in trace amounts in purslane. Microalgae, and supplements derived from it, are excellent alternative sources of EPA and other fatty acids, since fish often contain toxins due to pollution.
- Palmitic acid is the commonest saturated fatty acids in plant and animal lipids. It was purified first by Chevreul in his researches on butter and tallow, but was first surely characterized by Fremy E (Ann 1840, 36, 44), who prepared it in pure form from palm oil, from which he named it. Despite its wide distribution, it is generally not present in fats in very large proportions. It usually forms less than 5% of the total fatty acids, sometimes as much as 10% in common vegetal oils (peanut, soybean, corn, coconut) and in marine-animal oils. Lard, tallow, cocoa butter palm oil contain 25 to 40% of this component. 3
- Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)1 is an omega-3 fatty acid it is found in cold water fatty fish and fish oil supplements, along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Vegetarian sources of DHA come from seaweed. DHA is essential for the proper functioning of our brains as adults, and for the development of our nervous system and visual abilities during the first 6 months of life. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids are part of a healthy diet that helps lower risk of heart disease. Our bodies naturally produce small amounts of DHA, but we must get the amounts we need from our diet or supplements. Most people in the Western world do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids in their diet. Cold-water oceanic fish oils are rich in DHA. Most of the DHA in fish and complex organisms with access to cold-water oceanic foods originates in photosynthetic and heterotrophic microalgae, and becomes increasingly concentrated in organisms, as they move up the food chain. DHA is also commercially manufactured from microalgae; Crypthecodinium cohnii and another of the genus Schizochytrium. DHA manufactured using microalgae is vegetarian. Some animals with access to seafood make very little DHA through metabolism, but obtain it in the diet. However, in strict herbivores, and carnivores that do not eat seafood, DHA is manufactured internally from α-linolenic acid, a shorter omega-3 fatty acid manufactured by plants (and also occurring in animal products as obtained from plants). Although α-linolenic acid (ALA) does convert to DHA, the process is inefficient and very limited even in healthy individuals. To obtain the benefits of DHA, consuming it directly yields most effective results.
DHA is metabolized to form the docosanoids, which comprise several families of potent hormones. DHA is a major fatty acid in sperm and brain phospholipids and in the retina. Dietary DHA may reduce the risk of heart disease by reducing the level of blood triglycerides in humans. Low levels of DHA have been associated with Alzheimer's disease.
- Stearic acid is the highest molecular weight saturated fatty acid occurring abundantly in fats and oils. In epidemiologic and clinical studies stearic acid was associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids. Stearic acid was described by Chevreul (1823) in the course of his researches on fats. It is the highest molecular weight saturated fatty acid occurring abundantly in fats and oils. It occurs in small quantities in seed and marine oils. Milk fats (5-15%), lard (10%), tallow (15-30%), cocoa and shea butters ((30-35%) are the richest sources of stearic acid. It is the principal constituent of hydrogenated fats and oils (about 90%). Stearic acid is a saturated fat that's mainly in animal products. It's also in some plant foods like chocolate. It's very stable in storage and during frying. A relatively large percentage of stearic acid consumed is converted to oleic acid (a monounsaturated fat). Stearic acid is used to form margarines, shortenings, spreads, and as a cream base for baked products. Even though stearic acid is a saturated fat, studies have suggested that it has little effect on blood cholesterol levels, because such a high proportion is converted to oleic acid. 1
- Vaccenic acid is a naturally occurring trans fat found in the fat of ruminants and in dairy products such as milk and yogurt. It is also the predominant 'trans-fat' in human milk. A 2008 study at the University of Alberta suggests that vaccenic acid feeding in laboratory animals over 16 weeks resulted in lowered total cholesterol, lowered LDL cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels. The researchers are preparing to conduct further research, including human clinical trials. It has been suggested that the oxidative degradation of omega-7 unsaturated fatty acids on the skin surface, such as palmitoleic acid and vaccenic acid. 1
- Linoleic acid is an omega 6 essential polyunsaturated fatty acid that forms the lipid component of all cell membranes in our body. Its deficiency can result in symptoms such as hair fall, dry hair, and poor wound healing.4 Linoleic acid belongs to one of the two families of essential fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest for good health, because the body requires them for various biological processes, but cannot synthesize them from other food components.The word "linoleic" comes from the Greek word linon (flax). Oleic means "of, relating to, or derived from oil or olive" or "of or relating to oleic acid" because saturating the n-6 double bond produces oleic acid.
- C18:3n4 a trace fatty acid. 5
- Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid found naturally in many plant sources and in animal products. It is an omega-nine fatty acid, and considered one of the healthier sources of fat in the diet. It’s commonly used as a replacement for animal fat sources that are high in saturated fat. You may find various butter and egg substitutes made with high levels of oleic acid.As a fat, oleic acid is one of the better ones to consume. As a replacement for other saturated fats, it can lower total cholesterol level and raise levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) while lowering low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), also known as the “bad” cholesterol. Usually switching to an oil high in oleic acid is not difficult since there are numerous sources available.
- alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an organic compound found in many common vegetable oils. Studies suggest that alpha-linolenic acid and other omega-3 fatty acids may help treat a variety of conditions. The evidence is strongest for heart disease and problems that contribute to heart disease, such as high blood pressure. Research has also suggested a major neuroprotective effect of α-linolenic acid in in vivo models of both global ischemia and KA-induced epilepsy. 1 NOTE: Alpha-linolenic acid is not the same as alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant that helps the body turn glucose into energy. Confusion can arise because both alpha-linolenic acid and alpha-lipoic acid are both sometimes abbreviated as ALA.
- Arachidonic acid is the keystone essential fatty acid at the origin of the arachidonic acid cascade. Arachidonic acid is necessary for the repair and growth of skeletal muscle tissue. This role makes ARA an important dietary component in support of the muscle anabolic process. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and is present in similar quantities to DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). The two account for approximately 20% of its fatty acid content in the brain. Like DHA, neurological health is reliant upon sufficient levels of arachidonic acid. Among other things, arachidonic acid helps to maintain hippocampal cell membrane fluidity. ARA also activates syntaxin-3 (STX-3), a protein involved in the growth and repair of neurons. Arachidonic acid is also involved in early neurological development aiding in development in infant brains. Studies suggest that the supplementation of arachidonic acid during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease may actually be effective in reducing symptoms and slowing the disease progress.1 Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However it does become essential if there is a deficiency in linoleic acid or if there is an inability to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid which is required by most mammals. Some mammals lack the ability to—or have a very limited capacity to—convert linoleic acid into arachidonic acid, making it an essential part of their diet. Since little or no arachidonic acid is found in common plants, such animals are obligate carnivores; the cat is a common example. Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily dosages of 1,000-1,500 mg for 50 days has been well tolerated during several clinical studies, with no significant side effects reported. All common markers of health including kidney and liver function, serum lipids,immunity and platelet aggregation appear to be unaffected with this level and duration of use. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ARA in muscle tissue may be correlated with improved insulin sensitivity. Arachidonic acid supplementation by healthy adults appears to offer no toxicity or significant safety risk. A scientific advisory from the American Heart Association has favorably evaluated the health impact of dietary Omega-6 fats, including arachidonic acid. The group does not recommend limiting this EFA. In fact, the paper recommends individuals follow a diet that consists of at least 5-10% of calories coming from omega-6 fats, including arachidonic acid. Dietary ARA is not a risk factor for heart disease, and may play a role in maintaining optimal metabolism and reduced heart disease risk. It is, therefore, recommended to maintain sufficient intake levels of both omega 3 and omega 6 essential fatty acids for optimal health.
- Docosapentaenoic acid(DPA) Seal oil is quite high in DPA and some researchers feel that it may be a contributing factor to the overall good cardiovascular health of the Eskimos. Not a great deal is known about how DPA contributes to the overall efficacy of Omega 3, but increased research is under way to gain a better understanding. DPA is an omega-3 fatty acid that has been linked to many of the same benefits as the other oils in the omega-3 fatty acid family. DPA is the underrated and unknown Omega 3, some have called it the missing piece to the puzzle. DPA works synergistically with the other types of Omega 3's. 9
- Heptadecanoic acid, or margaric acid is a saturated fatty acid. It occurs as a trace component of the fat and milkfat of ruminants, but it does not occur in any natural animal or vegetable fat at concentrations over half a percent. Salts and esters of heptadecanoic acid are called heptadecanoates.
- Eicosatetraenoic acid, ETA is found in green-lipped mussel and appears to act as dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid oxygenation by both the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase pathway.1 Cis-8,11,14,17-Eicosatetraenoic acid is an eicosanoid present in marine lipids, a minor n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is a position isomer of 20:4n-6. n-3 PUFA contained in marine lipids appear to have a protective effect against coronary heart disease and thrombosis. Human platelets metabolize 8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid primarily into 12-hydroxy-8,10,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid. The eicosanoids are a diverse family of molecules that have powerful effects on cell function. They are best known as intercellular messengers, having autocrine and paracrine effects following their secretion from the cells that synthesize them. The diversity of possible products that can be synthesized from eicosatrienoic acid is due, in part to the variety of enzymes that can act on it. Studies have placed many, but not all, of these enzymes at or inside the nucleus. In some cases, the nuclear import or export of eicosatrienoic acid-processing enzymes is highly regulated. Furthermore, nuclear receptors that are activated by specific eicosanoids are known to exist. Taken together, these findings indicate that the enzymatic conversion of eicosatrienoic acid to specific signaling molecules can occur in the nucleus, that it is regulated, and that the synthesized products may act within the nucleus. ….source Human Metabolome Database.
- Arachidic acid, also called eicosanoic acid, is the saturated fatty acid. 1 Arachidic acid, also called eicosanoic acid, is the saturated fatty acid with a 20 carbon chain. It is as a minor constituent of peanut oil (1.1%–1.7%) and corn oil (3%). Its name derives from the Latin arachis — peanut. It can be formed by the hydrogenation of arachidonic acid.
- Elaidic acid is the major trans fat found in hydrogenated vegetable oils and occurs in small amounts in caprine and bovine milk. 1
- Linoelaidic acid is an omega-6 trans fatty acid and is a geometric isomer of linoleic acid. It is found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. 1
- Linolenic acid (gamma-linolenic acid or GLA, sometimes called gamoleic acid) is a fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils. It is sold as a dietary supplement for treating problems with inflammation and auto-immune diseases. GLA is sometimes prescribed in the belief that it has anti-inflammatory properties lacking some of the common side-effects of other anti-inflammatory drugs. Herbal medicine advocates recommend GLA for autoimmune disorders, arthritis, eczema, and PMS, with noticeable results not expected for months. 1 GLA was first isolated from the seed oil of evening primrose. This herbal plant was grown by Native Americans to treat swelling in the body. In the 17th century, it was introduced to Europe and became a popular folk remedy, earning the name king's cure-all.
- From GLA, the body forms dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA). This is one of the body's three sources of eicosanoids (along with AA and EPA.) DGLA is the precursor of the prostaglandin PGH1, which in turn forms PGE1 and the thromboxane TXA1. PGE1 has a role in regulation of immune system function and is used as the medicine alprostadil. TXA1 modulates the pro-inflammatory properties of the thromboxane TXA2.
Unlike AA and EPA, DGLA cannot yield leukotrienes. However it can inhibit the formation of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes from AA.
Although GLA is an n−6 fatty acid, a type of acid that is, in general, pro-inflammatory, it has anti-inflammatory properties.
- gadoleic acid The unsaturated fatty acid related to oleic acid; it is found in fish and vegetable oils. 5A cis-unsaturated fatty acid from cod liver oil and other sources.
- eicosadienoic acid -A trace Omega6 fatty acid. 1
- Behenic acid (also docosanoic acid) is a normal carboxylic acid, the saturated fatty acid. Commercially, behenic acid is often used to give hair conditioners and moisturizers their smoothing properties.1 At 9%, it is a major component of Ben oil (or behen oil), which is extracted from the seeds of the Ben-oil tree (Moringa oleifera). It is so named from the Persian month Bahman, when the roots of this tree were harvested.
Behenic acid is also present in some other oils and oil-bearing plants, including rapeseed (canola) and peanut oil and skins. It is estimated that one ton of peanut skins contains 13 pounds of behenic acid.
- Tricosanoic acid is found in different plant oils and extracts such as the Brazilian peppertree, but it can also be produced in the human body. It has shown to be a hair growth stimulant. 6
- Lignoceric acid, Myristic acid (also called Tetradecanoic acid ) It also acts as a lipid anchor in biomembranes. Besides nutmeg, myristic acid is also found in palm kernel oil, coconut oil, butter fat and is a minor component of many other animal fats. Myristic Acid is a digestible non-toxic fatty acid that occurs naturally in some foods, such as animal fats and most vegetables. 1 small amounts in most natural fats. The fatty acids of peanut oil contain small amounts of lignoceric acid (1.1%–2.2%). This fatty acid is also a byproduct of lignin production.
- Nervonic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid.. Nervonic acid is used in the treatment of disorders involving demyelination, such as adrenoleukodystrophy and multiple sclerosis where there is a decreased level of nervonic acid in sphingolipid. 1 This is one supplement that I found by accident when researching borage seed oil. Borage oil actually contains a small amount of this special long chain fatty acid. Nervonic acid is an essential nutrient for the growth and maintenance of the brain. It is highly recommended to pregnant and nursing women and small children but can be beneficial to exercising adults as well. Nervonic acid is an important ingredient in nervous cell membranes because it is vital in regulating the ion channels and receptors. It plays a part in the biosynthesis of myelin (10) (the white matter insulating the nerves- that allows the conduction of impulses from one part of the body to another).
Nervonic acid can regulate the function of brain cell membranes and have a neuroprotective effect which is important to hard training individuals. Nervonic acid can enhance neuron “firing” thereby increasing mental focus and maybe even muscle contraction (although this is just a theory right now).
- Butyric acid is found in butter, parmesan cheese and as a product of anaerobic fermentation (including in the colon and as body odor). Collectively, the studies suggest that the cancer preventive benefits of butyrate depend in part on amount, time of exposure, and the type of fat in the diet. Low carbohydrate diets are known to reduce the amount of butyrate produced in the colon. It has an unpleasant smell and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). It can be detected by mammals with good scent detection abilities (such as dogs) at 10 ppb, whereas humans can detect it in concentrations above 10 ppm. Fermented Kombucha "tea" includes butyric acid as a result of the fermentation.
- Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid. It is found naturally in the milk of various mammals, and it is a minor constituent of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. 1
- Capric acid is a 10-carbon fatty acid, is one of a series of similar fatty acids found naturally in minor amounts in animal fats and milk and in certain plant oils, including palm and coconut oils. Capric acid is considered by many natural food proponents to be an important contributor to good health, and for that reason, they recommend consumption of foods containing this fatty acid, such as goat milk and coconut oil. Some proponents also suggest capric acid may help balance insulin levels in humans and that it helps counter insulin resistance. While capric acid is often described in medical literature as part of the delivery system that helps diabetics absorb prescribed amounts of insulin, it does not necessarily follow that adding foods rich in capric acid have a direct impact on insulin levels. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies capric acid as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). A toxicity profile in EPA documents indicates no significant risks of systemic toxicity for humans, even at high dosage levels. As this substance is found extensively in nature and there have been no indications of adverse impacts on the environment, the EPA has required no environmental studies. 7
- Undecanoic acid an unsaturated fatty acid, used topically, in ointment or powder form, as an antifungal agent.8
- Lauric acid is believed to have antimicrobial properties. In vitro experiments have suggested that some fatty acids including lauric acid could be a useful component in a treatment for acne, but no clinical trials have yet been conducted to evaluate this potential benefit in humans. Lauric acid has been found to increase total high density lipoprotein (HDL) "good" cholesterol. As a result, lauric acid actually has "a more favorable effect on total: HDL cholesterol than any other fatty acid, either saturated or unsaturated", a lower total/HDL cholesterol ratio suggests a decrease in atherosclerotic risk. Lauric acid is antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral and a COX-1-2 inhibitor. It frequently occurs in traditional medicinal remedies for benign prostatic hyperplasia. In the body it can be converted into monolaurin.1 It is the main acid in coconut oil and in palm kernel oil (not to be confused with palm oil), and is believed to have antimicrobial properties. It is also found in human milk (6.2% of total fat), cow's milk (2.9%), and goat's milk (3.1%).
- So now 30 would be…. Myristic acid (also called Tetradecanoic acid ) . Nutmeg butter is rich in myristic acid (also called Tetradecanoic acid ) which constitutes 60-75 percent of the fatty-acid content. It also acts as a lipid anchor in biomembranes. Besides nutmeg, myristic acid is also found in palm kernel oil, coconut oil, butter fat and is a minor component of many other animal fats. Myristic Acid is a digestible non-toxic fatty acid that occurs naturally in some foods, such as animal fats and most vegetables.